经典 | “镕裁”啥意思你造吗？81个词语带你了解中华思想文化（第二波）
2015-01-10 教育部新闻办 微言教育
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本末běnmò ben–mo(the fundamental and the incidental)
the two characters literallymean the different parts of a plant, namely, its root and its foliage. theextended meaning is an important concept in chinese philosophical discourse.the term can be understood in three different ways. 1) ben (本) refers towhat is fundamental or essential, while mo (末) meanswhat is minor or incidental, two qualities that differ in value and importance.2) ben refers to the existence of the world in an ontological sense, while morepresents any specific thing or phenomenon. 3) in daoist political philosophyben is a state in which rule is exercised by not disrupting the natural orderof the world, while mo refers to moral standards and fundamental principlesgoverning social behavior. in any ben-mo relationship, ben is most importantand plays a dominant role, while mo exists thanks to ben. on the other hand, itis through the vehicle of mo that ben exerts its influence. thus the two,though different, are mutually dependent.
zixia’s students canclean, receive guests, and engage in social interaction, but these are trivialthings. they have not learned the fundamentals. how can this be sufficient?(the analects)
one should respect, notinterfere with, the natural order of the world, and apply this principle when establishing moral standards, socialnorms, and laws and regulations. (wang bi: commentaries on laozi)
般若bōrě bore or boruo / wisdom
bore or boruo is thetransliteration of the sanskrit word praj?ā, meaning wisdom. it refers to the supreme wisdom with insight intothe nature and reality of all things. buddhism believes that such wisdomsurpasses all secular understandings, and therefore is the guide for or essenceof the effort aimed at achieving enlightenment and attaining buddhahood or bodhisattvahood.bore has no form, no appearance, and cannot be expressed in words. it can onlybe achieved by undertaking a variety of accessible buddhist practices.
bore is the wisdom that surpassesall common or ordinary knowledge and specific understandings. (sengzhao:treatises of sengzhao)
大同dàtóng universal harmony
this term refers to the time ofpeace and prosperity envisioned by confucian scholars when all the people underheaven are one family, equal, friendly, and helpful to each other (as opposedto xiaokang [小康] – minor or moderate prosperity). confucianism takesuniversal harmony as the supreme stage of the development of the human society,somewhat similar to the idea of utopia in the west. its main features are: allpower and wealth belong to the whole of society; all people are equal and liveand work in peace and contentment; everyone is cared for by society; everythingis used to its fullest and everyone works to his maximum potential. in the lateqing dynasty and the early republic of china, the term referred to the conceptsof socialism, communism, or cosmopolitanism that had been introduced to chinafrom the west.
when great dao prevails, thewhole world is owned by all the people. those who are virtuous and competentare selected as administrators. people treat each other with sincerity and livein harmony. people not only love their parents, bring up their children, butalso take care of the aged. the middle-aged are able to put their talents andabilities to best use, children are well nurtured, and old widows and widowers,unmarried old people, orphans, childless old people, and the disabled are allprovided for… this is universal harmony. (the book of rites)
法治fǎzhì rule by law
rule by law, as opposed to ruleby man, calls for ruling a state and its people by the ruler through enactingand strictly enforcing laws and regulations. it is an important politicalthought of the legalist scholars in the pre-qin period. rule by law meted outwell-defined rewards and punishments, but tended to be excessively severe andrigid in enforcement. from the han dynasty all the way to the qing dynasty,rule by law and rule by man were exercised by various dynasties, mostly incombination. with the spread of western thoughts to china in more recent times,rule by law acquired new meanings.
when our forefathers ruled thestate, they did not act unscrupulously in disregard of law, nor did they bestowpersonal favors within the framework of law. (guanzi)
therefore, rule by law is thesupreme way to rule a country. it has been exercised by numerous countries inthe world for several thousand years. who conceived this idea and developed itinto a theory of governance? it was none other than our fellow countrymanguanzi! (liang qichao: a critical biography of guanzi)
封建fēngjiàn feudal system
under this system, ancientmonarchs granted titles of nobility, land, and people to their relatives andofficials of merit, allowing them to establish dukedoms. each territory wassmaller than that under the direct control of the monarch, and had its own militaryand administrative systems. all dukedoms checked each other while protectingthe monarch together. as a political scheme, the feudal system is believed tohave started in the era of the legendary yellow emperor, and became establishedin the western zhou dynasty. in more than 2000 years from the qin dynasty tothe qing dynasty, centralized government or imperial autocracy was dominant,rendering the feudal system supplementary.
feudal system survived the erasof all ancient sages, namely yao, shun, yu the great, tang of shang, king wenof zhou, and king wu of zhou. (liu zongyuan: on feudal system)
格调gédiào form and melody
the term refers to the form andmetrical patterns, as well as content, of poetry. it relates to artistic taste and appeal in poetry criticism. ge (格) refers to the need to satisfyestablished metrical rules, while diao (调) refers tothe need to follow tone and rhyme schemes in poetry. some poetry critics of thetang and song dynasties stressed the importance of form and melody in order toestablish a set of elegant and authoritative standards for poetry. theory onform and melody in the ming and qing dynasties often emphasized the importancefor poets to abide by confucian orthodoxy, thus constraining their expressionof feelings and artistic creations. the term was later also used in discussionsof other forms of art.
to be elegant and unaffected isto satisfy the requirements of form; to be tuneful and resonant is to followthe rules of melody. (li mengyang: arguments against he jingming’s views)
jiang kui’s poems arecharacterized by ethereal purity. though tinged with loneliness and sadness attimes, they are of high standard and taste. (chen tingzhuo: remarks on lyricsfrom white rain studio)
the forefathers of the hanpeople living in the central plains referred to themselves by this term.earlier on they called themselves hua (华), zhuhua (诸华),xia (夏) or zhuxia (诸夏). theterm huaxia (华夏) embodies the common identity of theway of life, language, and culture of the people living in the central plains,mainly the han people, and the inheritance of such identity. the huaxia peopleevolved into a fairly stable ethnic group in the qin dynasty, which establisheda unified country of many ethnic groups with huaxia being the principal group.in the han dynasty, the term han became an alternative name of huaxia. later,the term huaxia was extended to refer to china or the han people.
the chinese character夏 (xia) meansbig and great. since the ancient huaxia people practiced grand and elaboraterituals, they called themselves xia (great). their dresses were resplendent, sothey were referred to as hua (splendid). therefore, both hua and xia refer tothe han people. (kong yingda: correct meaning of zuo’scommentary on the spring and autumn annals)
教化jiàohuà shaping the mind througheducation
shaping the mind througheducation was a key concept of the political philosophy and an essential way ofgovernance in ancient china. rulers usually used a combination of means, bothvisible and invisible, to subtly spread their values among people so that thesevalues would be observed in people’s daily life, leading to integrationof governance and social mores. these means include issuing administrativedecrees, conducting moral education, creating a favorable environment,disseminating popular literature that promoted ethical values, and selectingofficials through imperial examinations.
educating and influencing thepeople through li (礼) has the invisible impact of getting rid of immoral thoughts in thebud. (the book of rites)
九州jiǔzhōu nine zhou (regions)
this term is an alternativedesignation for china. according to the book of history, the country consistedof nine zhou (州), namely jizhou, yanzhou, qingzhou, xuzhou, yangzhou, jingzhou,yuzhou, liangzhou, and yongzhou. there are similar references to the nine zhouin classic works of the same or later period, such as the rituals of zhou, erya, and master lü’s spring and autumn annals. the ninezhou were never adopted as actual administrative divisions of the country, butthey did show the general geographical area inhabited by the chinese peoplesince the late spring and autumn period.
the vitality of china depends onwind and thunder, unfortunately not a single horse’s neighing isheard. i urge the lord of heaven to once again lift his spirits and, breakingall bonds and fetters, send talent of all kinds to the human world. (gongzizhen: miscellaneous poems written in the year of 1839)
as i see it, the cause of china’s disasterslies not overseas but within the country. (zhang zhidong: preface toencouragement to learning)
良史liángshǐ good historian/good history
this refers to historians orhistory books that record historical facts in an objective and truthful waybased on evidences without covering up anything. objectivity is the ultimatecriterion for judging historians or history books in historiography.
however, after reading a hugenumber of books, liu xiang and yang xiong came to view sima qian as a greathistorian... his accounts are straightforward and reasonable, accurate andsubstantive, and free from false praise; they do not cover up evil deeds. (thehan history)
a good history is one which recordsboth good and evil that have happened. (su e: textual studies by su e)
良知liángzhī liangzhi (conscience)
humans are born with innateconscience and the ability to know and act upon it. the term liangzhi (良知) was firstused by mencius, who believed that what man knew by instinct was liangzhi(knowledge of goodness). the term includes ren (仁),i.e. love for one’s parents and yi (义), i.e. respect for one’s elder brothers.the concept is an important component of mencius’belief in the innate goodness of human nature. the ming-dynasty philosopherwang shouren raised the idea of “attaining liangzhi.” he extended the mencius’ liangzhi to meanthe principles of heaven, maintaining that all things under heaven and theirlaws were covered by liangzhi. with liangzhi being extended to its fullest(through self-cultivation and moral practice), it is possible to know and putin practice all moral truths.
what is known without thinkingis the innate knowledge of goodness. (mencius)
principles of heaven andconscience are the same in essence. (records of great learning)
情景qíngjǐng sentiment and scenery
this term refers to the mutualdependence and integration of an author’s description of scenery and objects,and his expression of feelings in his literary creation. qing (情) is an author’s inner feelings, and jing (景) refers to external scenery or an object. the theory of sentimentand scenery stresses integration of the two, maintaining that sentiment canhardly be aroused without scenery and that scenery or an object cannot beappreciated without sentiment. this term appeared in the song dynasty. comparedwith earlier notions about sentiment and scenery, this one is more emphaticabout fusing the depiction of scenery with the expression of feelings, and theprocess of creation with that of appreciation.
scenery has no place in poetryunless there are feelings for it; feelings cannot be stirred without theinspiration of scenery. (fan xiwen: midnight dialogues across two beds)
sentiment and scenery seem to betwo distinct things, but in fact they cannot be separated. a good poet knowshow to integrate them seamlessly. an ingenious combination of sentiment andscenery means scenery embedded in sentiment and vice versa. (wang fuzhi:desultory remarks on poetry from ginger studio)
人治rénzhì rule by man
rule by man, as opposed to ruleby law, is the most important ruling concept in the confucian politicalphilosophy in ancient china. it calls for ruling a state and its people throughorderly human relations, moral standards, and other value systems. rule by manemphasizes the fundamental role and importance of people in conductingpolitical affairs. it emphasizes that a ruler should have a lofty and noblecharacter, select competent officials with integrity to run the state, andeducate and influence the general public. in chinese history, this concept ofgovernance was designed to achieve a harmonious relationship between thesovereign, his officials, and his subjects, which meant “benevolentgovernance.”
rule by man aims to regulatehuman relations. (zheng xuan: annotations on the book of rites)
日新rìxīn constant renewal
this term refers to an ongoingprocess of self-renewal, which also brings new life to the people, society, andthe nation. this process features continuous progress and improvement. itrepresents a tenacious and innovative spirit that permeates all levels of “self-cultivation,family regulation, state governance, bringing peace to all under heaven.”
“if we can improve ourselves in oneday, we should do so every day, and keep building on improvement,” reads the inscription on the bathtub of tang, founder of the shangdynasty. “people should be encouraged to discard theold and embrace the new, give up evil ideas, and live up to high moralstandards,” says the book of history. “though it was an ancient state, zhou saw its future lying incontinuously renewing itself,” comments the book ofsongs. therefore, junzi (men of virtue) should strive to excel themselves inall aspects and at all times. (the book of rites)
镕裁róngcái refining and deleting
this term refers to improving aliterary work by refining its basic content and making the presentationconcise. refining and deleting is a basic process in literary writing. the termwas first mentioned in the literary mind and the carving of dragons. it means thatin producing a literary work, the author should select the right elements fromall the material he has, delete unnecessary parts and keep the essence, andwrite in a concise way to best present what he has in mind and to best suit thestyles of writing. it shows that literary creation is a process of constantlystriving for perfection in terms of both content and form. this idea had agreat impact on the theory of theatrical writing in the ming and qingdynasties.
refining means to shape thebasic content and structure of a literary work, while deleting means to cut offredundant words or sentences. once done, the essay will be well structured,with a clear-cut theme. (liu xie: the literary mind and the carving of dragons)